Analysis on the current situation of beer bottle q

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Analysis on the current situation of beer bottle quality problems in China

with the improvement of living standards and the change of dietary structure, beer, a "liquid bread", has become an important drink in consumers' daily life. As a drink, corresponding packaging materials are needed. At present, 65% of the packaging materials used to contain beer are glass bottles, which leads to injuries and disabilities caused by beer bottle explosion from time to time

the results of national supervision and spot check show that the qualified rate of new beer bottles is generally around 80%, while the qualified rate of recycled bottles is very low. According to the data and results of the national packaging product quality supervision and inspection center's inspection and identification of new bottles, recycled bottles and personal injuries caused by beer bottle explosion for many years, this paper intends to make a comprehensive analysis of the quality of beer bottles

quality status of new bottles

in the supervision and random inspection for seven consecutive years, most of the random inspection were 640ml green and brown ordinary bottles, with a small number of special bottles and small bottles. Through inspection, the main unqualified items are internal pressure resistance and impact resistance, which are the main indicators of beer bottle resistance to internal and external pressure and impact. The standard requires that 8 samples be randomly selected, and within the specified range of the standard, they shall not be broken during the experiment. However, in the actual detection, the maximum damage rate of beer bottles is 6, and the damage rate is as high as 75%

causes of new bottle quality problems

1 Raw materials

beer bottles are mainly composed of SiO2 and Na2 O and cao+mgo, raw material analysis and ingredients are the basis of products. Its ingredients are quartz sand, soda ash, feldspar, dolomite, fluorite, calcite, etc., but quartz sand is the main component. If enterprises choose low-quality sand or use clinker (broken glass) to replace quartz sand in the raw materials of products, the cost will be reduced and the product quality will be reduced at the same time. Due to the excessive addition of clinker and the insufficient melting of the glass itself, there will be solid inclusions, stones, bubbles, stripes, etc. in the bottle. There may also be technological defects such as serious uneven thickness of the bottle wall, which can cause the bottle body to bear the imbalance of impact force and pressure, and reduce the overall strength of the bottle

2. The production process of beer bottle includes: raw material analysis, batching, melting, molding, annealing, inspection and other processes. Nowadays, the beer bottle production equipment has developed from the semi mechanization of pressure blow molding at the end of the 19th century to the advanced production line of modern mechanization and automation. Automation has been realized from the preparation of raw materials, glass melting, bottle molding to inspection and packaging, and the whole set of equipment has been upgraded. But at present, only 20% of enterprises in China have reached this level, and 80% of enterprises' equipment level is still the level of foreign countries in the 1970s and 1980s. Although some enterprises have carried out a series of transformations on the original basis, such as using cold and hot end spraying, and partially realized the computer-controlled notch hydraulic impact specimen broaching machine, including the bed system, the overall level has not been fundamentally changed. For example, most of the batching equipment adopts manual weighing and mechanical mixing, resulting in poor batching uniformity and large component fluctuations, while the computer-controlled batching error is only 1.6 ‰; The melting rate of glass furnace is about 1.5t/d.m2, while that of advanced melting furnace is 2.2t/d.m2-2.5t/d.m2. In addition, if the drop temperature in the molding process cannot be controlled at ± 1 ℃, the bottle molding rate is low. After the bottle is formed, if the annealing and temperature reduction are not properly controlled, the bottle will become brittle, which will significantly reduce the performance of internal pressure resistance, impact resistance and other items

3. Quality control means

raw material composition directly affects the internal quality of bottles. Some enterprises strictly control the analysis of raw materials and finished products, and supervise and control the quality of physical performance items such as density and ring cutting uniformity. The analysis accuracy is high and the speed is fast. However, most enterprises still use the traditional chemical analysis method for the chemical composition analysis of raw materials and finished products, which is slow and cannot guide the production in time. Even some small enterprises lack capital investment, the testing equipment is not perfect, and the self inspection means are not perfect. While some enterprises basically do not do component analysis on raw materials, and only take regular spot checks on products, so the product quality cannot be comprehensively and effectively tested and controlled, resulting in unqualified products flowing into the market, so the product quality is out of control from the source

quality status of recycled bottles

spot check samples of recycled bottles are basically 640mm green and brown beer bottles and a few special bottle types. The qualified rate of internal pressure resistance and impact resistance of key items in the inspection is very low

causes of quality problems of recycled bottles

1 Disorderly recycling and repeated use

the national standard suggests that the recycling period of beer bottles is two years, and the current situation of China's beer industry is the massive use of recycled bottles. The survey found that the B bottles that are still in use for more than two years account for about 15% of the total number of B bottles, and some B bottles have been extended "service" for as long as six years. The use rate of new and used bottles varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. From a national perspective, the use rate of recycled bottles is basically maintained at about 70%

in addition, the source channels of recycled bottles are complex, messy, and the flow area is large. In a beer production enterprise, recycling bottles across several provinces can be found. Although the manufacturing mark of beer bottles is less than two years, due to the cross regional flow, the friction, bump and scratch of recycling bottles are aggravated, and the quality of recycling bottles is greatly reduced. After inspection, the damage rate is as high as 87.5%. The national packaging product quality supervision and inspection center has found in the identification and inspection of beer bottle explosion injuries for many years that all the injuries caused by explosion are recycled bottles

2. Illegal packaging and transportation

the national standard GB clearly stipulates that the outer packaging of bottled beer must be shipped in qualified plastic turnover boxes, corrugated boxes and wooden boxes, and there must be shockproof and anti-collision gap materials at the bottom of the box. "Research results cannot lie in the laboratory" materials. However, in order to pursue product profits, some beer production enterprises have illegally packed beer with ethylene strapping ropes (that is, 10 bottles of beer are bundled together). Such bundled packaging is easy to produce scratches and collisions on the surface between bottles during transportation, sales and drinking, and is easy to produce microcracks and other defects that are difficult to detect with the naked eye

experiments showed that the impact resistance and internal pressure resistance of beer bottles decreased by 60% after slight scratches on the surface, and decreased by 90% in severe scratches. In addition, no matter new bottles or recycled bottles, most production and marketing units use gunny bags for packaging and transportation. There are no protective measures during transportation, and there are no shockproof and anti-collision measures during loading and unloading, resulting in a significant reduction in the mechanical strength of beer bottles, so hidden quality hidden dangers endangering the personal safety of consumers

3. No inspection means

the national standard GB stipulates that "beer production enterprises should establish a sampling inspection system for new bottles and recycled bottles into the factory". For the sampling inspection of recycled bottles, first, whether the sampling inspection service life is more than two years, second, whether the sampling inspection of recycled bottles meets the technical requirements within the service life, and those that exceed the service life and fail to meet the technical requirements should be eliminated. At present, most beer production enterprises have no strict detection means for beer bottles, and manually select secondary bottles (scratches and cracks) only by perception. This detection method cannot eliminate all unqualified products, and the internal quality of beer bottles cannot be guaranteed

according to the identification and inspection data of 16 groups of people injured by beer bottle explosion from 2000 to 2002, 9 groups of beer bottles were unqualified, and the unqualified rate was 56.25%. There are 14 groups of explosion caused by external force and 1 group of bottle explosion caused by internal stress. In 16 groups of identification tests, there were 9 cases of eye injury, 1 case of serious upper arm injury, and 6 cases of other injuries

suggestions and Countermeasures

strengthen supervision and establish a production license system as soon as possible

under the effect of market competition mechanism, the stratification of market quality demand leads to the multilevel differentiation of beer bottle quality. Large and medium-sized enterprises, foreign-funded enterprises and joint ventures have become the backbone to maintain and improve the overall level of beer bottle product quality because of their advantages and competitive strength in capital, technology, equipment, management, staff quality and so on. Enterprises at this level account for about 30% of the total share of bottle making enterprises, and the object of supply is well-known domestic beer enterprises. However, a considerable number of bottle making enterprises cannot meet the quality requirements due to lack of funds and limited technological transformation, so the product quality is difficult to guarantee

in order to improve the overall level of the beer bottle industry, it is suggested that the government should bring beer bottles into the scope of production license management of industrial products, raise the threshold of market access, prevent unqualified products from entering the market from the source, and effectively promote the domestic and foreign countries to try to use plant proteins studied in biodegradable materials, mainly soybean protein, corn protein, wheat protein The improvement of product quality and quality management level of sunflower seed protein and other enterprises has completely improved the current chaotic situation of beer bottle market

speed up the revision of the standard to make the supervision and management more scientific and operable

we should speed up the revision of the national standard for beer bottles, and scientifically adjust some quality indicators such as bottle weight on the premise of ensuring quality safety and according to market demand and technological progress. In particular, operational provisions are made on the preconditions, frequency, duration and management requirements for the recycling of beer bottles

strengthen the source management and limit the use proportion of recycled bottles

the supervision and management department should strengthen the supervision of beer bottle production enterprises to stabilize and improve product quality. At the same time, strengthen the supervision and management of beer production enterprises, establish and strengthen the beer bottle inspection system, supervise and improve the detection means, and fundamentally eliminate the loopholes of unsupervised quality of recycled bottles. Beer production enterprises should also strengthen self-discipline, enhance social sense and integrity ethics, reduce the proportion of recycled bottles when filling bottled beer, and put survival and development on the same position as the personal safety of consumers while paying attention to benefits

do a good job in publicity and correctly guide consumption

because beer is a pressurized product containing CO2 gas, especially a special pressure vessel, the pressure in the bottle is 0.1MPa to 0.3MPa after filling at room temperature. When the temperature changes, the pressure in the bottle will also change. Therefore, once the beer bottle is unqualified or improperly operated in transportation, storage and opening for drinking, the explosion will occur at any time, so we must do a good job in publicity. Beer production enterprises should clearly indicate the correct storage and opening drinking methods in the label of beer. Operators should remind consumers to avoid sun exposure and external impact, and use special tools for bottle opening

reprinted from: China's food industry

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